Increased Standard Deduction
If you are age 65 and don't itemize deductions on your tax return, the standard deduction is increased. As of the 2013 tax year, the extra deduction was $1,500 for taxpayers filing as single or head of household. If you were married and filed a joint return or were a qualifying widow or widower, the standard deduction increased $1,200. If both spouses were 65, you got $2,400 added to the standard deduction.
Medical Expenses Deduction
All taxpayers can deduct qualified medical expenses in excess of 10 percent of their adjusted gross income. However, someone age 65 or older can deduct medical expenses in excess of 7.5 percent of AGI until January 1, 2017. After that, the threshold goes to 10 percent. You must file an itemized tax return to claim the deduction for medical expenses.