We study the collective emission of a beam of atomic dipoles into an optical cavity. Our focus lies on the effect of a finite detuning between the atomic transition frequency and the cavity resonance frequency. By developing a theoretical description of the coupled atom-cavity dynamics we analyze the stationary atomic configurations including a superradiant phase where the atoms undergo continuous monochromatic collective emission. In addition, we derive an analytical formula for the cavity pulling coefficient which characterizes the displacement of the emission frequency towards the cavity frequency. We find that the pulling is small if the cavity linewidth is much larger than the collective linewidth of the atomic beam. This regime is desired for building stable lasers because the emission frequency is robust against cavity length fluctuations. Furthermore, we investigate the stability of the atomic phases and compare our theoretical predictions with numerical results. Remarkably, we also find polychromatic emission regimes, where the spectrum has several frequency components while the light output is still superradiant.

The formation of a phase of matter can be associated with the spontaneous breaking of a symmetry. For crystallization, this broken symmetry is the spatial translation symmetry, as the atoms spontaneously localize in a periodic fashion. In analogy to spatial crystals, the spontaneous breaking of temporal translation symmetry results in the formation of time crystals. While recent and on-going experiments on driven isolated systems aim to minimize dissipative processes, as it is an undesired sourc...

We theoretically analyze the collective dynamics of a thermal beam of atomic dipoles that couple to a single mode when traversing an optical cavity. For this setup we derive a semiclassical model and determine the onset of superradiant emission and its stability. We derive analytical expressions for the linewidth of the emitted light and compare them with numerical simulations. In addition, we find and predict two different superradiant phases; a steady-state superradiant phase and a multi-compo...

Lasing in the bad cavity regime has promising applications in precision metrology due to the reduced sensitivity to cavity noise. Here we investigate the spectral properties and phase behavior of pulsed lasing on the ^1_0 - ^3_1line of ^{88}r in a mK thermal ensemble, as first described in arxiv:1903.12593. The system operates in a regime where the Doppler-broadened atomic transition linewidth is several times larger than the cavity linewidth. We find that by detuning the cavity reso...

#1Simon B. Jäger(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 8

#2Haonan Liu(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 2

Last. Murray Holland(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 46

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We investigate the different photon emission regimes created by a pre-excited and collimated atomic beam passing through a single mode of an optical cavity. In the regime where the cavity degrees of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, we find that the atoms undergo superradiant emission when the collective linewidth exceeds the transit-time broadening. We analyze the case where the atomic beam direction is slanted with respect to the cavity axis. For this situation, we find that a phase of ...

#2Simon B. Jäger(NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology)H-Index: 8

Last. Travis Nicholson(NUS: National University of Singapore)H-Index: 10

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We propose a new type of superradiant laser based on a hot atomic beam traversing an optical cavity. We show that the theoretical minimum linewidth and maximum power are competitive with the best ultracoherent clock lasers. Also, our system operates naturally in continuous wave mode, which has been elusive for superradiant lasers so far. Unlike existing ultracoherent lasers, our design is simple and rugged. This makes it a candidate for the first widely accessible ultracoherent laser, as well as...

#2Simone Colombo(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 8

Last. Vladan Vuletic(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 65

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State-of-the-art atomic clocks are based on the precise detection of the energy difference between two atomic levels, which is measured in terms of the quantum phase accumulated over a given time interval1–4. The stability of optical-lattice clocks (OLCs) is limited both by the interrupted interrogation of the atomic system by the local-oscillator laser (Dick noise5) and by the standard quantum limit (SQL) that arises from the quantum noise associated with discrete measurement outcomes. Although...

#1Juan A. Muniz(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 7

#2Diego Barberena(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 4

Last. James K. Thompson(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 27

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Interactions between atoms and light in optical cavities provide a means of investigating collective (many-body) quantum physics in controlled environments. Such ensembles of atoms in cavities have been proposed for studying collective quantum spin models, where the atomic internal levels mimic a spin degree of freedom and interact through long-range interactions tunable by changing the cavity parameters1–4. Non-classical steady-state phases arising from the interplay between atom–light interact...

We theoretically analyze superradiant emission of light from a cold atomic gas, when mechanical effects of photon-atom interactions are considered. The atoms are confined within a standing-wave resonator and an atomic metastable dipolar transition couples to a cavity mode. The atomic dipole is incoherently pumped in the parameter regime that would correspond to stationary superradiance in absence of inhomogeneous broadening. Starting from the master equation for cavity field and atomic degrees o...

Highly stable laser sources based on narrow atomic transitions provide a promising platform for direct generation of stable and accurate optical frequencies. Here we investigate a simple system operating in the high-temperature regime of cold atoms. The interaction between a thermal ensemble of ^{88}r at mK temperatures and a medium-finesse cavity produces strong collective coupling and facilitates high atomic coherence which causes lasing on the dipole forbidden ^1_0 \leftrightarrow ^3...

: Cold samples of calcium atoms are prepared in the metastable ^{3}P_{1} state inside an optical cavity resonant with the narrow band (375 Hz) ^{1}S_{0}→^{3}P_{1} intercombination line at 657 nm. We observe a superradiant emission of hyperbolic secant shaped pulses into the cavity with an intensity proportional to the square of the atom number, a duration much shorter than the natural lifetime of the ^{3}P_{1} state, and a delay time fluctuating from shot to shot in excellent agreement with theo...